Glixin Digest


Links to Research News related to BLOS

Notes or article author name can be added in this area.



This page will keep you up to date on various medical news articles related to BLOS.

Food & Supplements

Blood Tests

Type 2 Diabetes



Heart Disease


Healthcare Costs

Clinical Trials

Other BLOS-sibilities?

Food & Supplements

In this section, you'll find research articles that report on changes in BLOS related health conditions caused by dietary changes or the use of supplements.

April 19, 2018: Here's a News Article reporting on the results of a new study published in Hypertension that evaluated the effect of MitoQ, a novel antioxidant, on hypertension in senior citizens.  From the article: "The researchers found that when taking the supplement, dilation of subjects’ arteries improved by 42 percent, making their blood vessels, at least by that measure, look like those of someone 15 to 20 years younger. An improvement of that magnitude, if sustained, is associated with about a 13 percent reduction in heart disease, Rossman said. The study also showed that the improvement in dilation was due to a reduction in oxidative stress.  In participants who, under placebo conditions, had stiffer arteriesanother indication of vascular dysfunctionsupplementation was associated with reduced stiffness.  Blood vessels grow stiff and have trouble dilating with age largely as a result of oxidative stress, the excess production of metabolic byproducts called free radicals which can damage the endothelium and impair its function. When we’re young, our bodies produce enough antioxidants to quench those free radicals. But with age, the balance tips, as mitochondria and other cellular processes produce excess free radicals and the body’s antioxidant defenses can’t keep up, Rossman said.  Oral antioxidant supplements like vitamin C and vitamin E fell out of favor after several large studies showed them to be ineffective.  “This study breathes new life into the discredited theory that supplementing the diet with antioxidants can improve health,” said Seals. “It suggests that targeting a specific sourcemitochondriamay be a better way to reduce oxidative stress and improve cardiovascular health with aging.”   The article below suggests that Vitamin E may be the most effective antioxidant, although MitoQ was not evaluated.  It's good to see more interest from medical researchers on the potential of antioxidants to reduce oxidative stress.  

Novel Antioxidant Makes Old Blood Vessels Seem Young Again

April 13, 2018: Here's a News Article reporting on a new study that evaluated seven different antioxidants for the treatment of mitochondrial disease.  From the article: "The antioxidants vitamin E and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prolonged survival and protected against brain damage in models of mitochondrial disease, a study shows. The compounds will now be tested in clinical trials.  Conducted by researchers at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), the study, “N-acetylcysteine and vitamin E rescue animal longevity and cellular oxidative stress in pre-clinical models of mitochondrial complex I disease,” appeared in the journal Molecular Genetics and Metabolism<SNIP>  Although antioxidants regularly found in the diet and supplements are thought to defend against oxidative stress, some may be unsafe or ineffective.  Results showed that NAC and vitamin E extended the lifespan of worms and protected zebra fish from brain damage. Treatment with NAC also prolonged the survival of cells obtained from a patient with mitochondrial disease.  “In addition to showing clear benefits in animal survival and cellular viability in these animal models of genetic-based mitochondrial disease, we learned that these compounds effectively relieved oxidative stress that was present throughout the entire cell, not only within the mitochondria,” Falk said."  There will be more studies on the efficacy of antioxidants on reducing oxidative stress.  Would a slow-release supplement with a combination of antioxidants be effective in managing BLOS? 

Some Antioxidants Show Benefits in Models of Mitochondrial Disease, Study Reports

April 7, 2018: Here's a News Article reporting on recent comments from the new FDA Chief Scott Gottlieb regarding the role the of diet and the health of Americans.  From the article: "We spend a lot of time at the FDA on new technologies — cell and gene base therapies, regenerative medicine — that have curative potential and there is a lot of public health opportunity from what we’re seeing in the pipeline,” Gottlieb said in an interview at his FDA office.  “But when you think of where we’re going to have the most dramatic public health impact, it’s going to be getting back to the public health basics, trying to sharply reduce smoking rates, trying to improve diets and trying to increase vaccination rates,” Gottlieb said."  FDA doesn’t have a specific role determining where food is sold, but the agency thinks its work on labeling and health claims could help people people make smarter decisions no matter where they are shopping. The types of initiatives FDA is encouraging the food industry to make include better defining terms like “healthy,” and including when foods have a full serving of dairy, or vegetables, as part of the total day’s recommended servings of these food groups. Some day, food labels will provide information on the BLOS potential of the food.  Some day... 

FDA Chief Pushes for Better Labels to Reduce Disease, Obesity

April 7, 2018: Here's a News Article reporting on a new diet study conducted by Stanford researchers.  From the article: "Perhaps the biggest takeaway from this study, (Prof. Christopher) Gardner said, is that the fundamental strategy for losing weight with either a low-fat or a low-carb approach is similar. Eat less sugar, less refined flour and as many vegetables as possible. Go for whole foods, whether that is a wheatberry salad or grass-fed beef. “On both sides, we heard from people who had lost the most weight that we had helped them change their relationship to food, and that now they were more thoughtful about how they ate,” said Gardner.  Moving forward, he and his team will continue to analyze the reams of data collected during the yearlong study, and they hope to partner with scientists across Stanford to uncover keys to individual weight loss.  “I’m hoping that we can come up with signatures of sorts,” he said. “I feel like we owe it to Americans to be smarter than to just say ‘eat less.’ I still think there is an opportunity to discover some personalization to it — now we just need to work on tying the pieces together.”  Gardner and his group is on the right track, but will they consider the role of Sulfur in processed foods?  It would explain how either diet works, since the Sulfur-based additives are found in so many processed foods. 

Low-Fat or Low-Carb? It's a Draw, Study Finds

November 9, 2017: Here's a News Article reporting on a large study on the role of a diet high in antioxidants lowering the risk of Type 2 Diabetes.  From the article: "A diet high in antioxidants may help protect against diabetes, a new study found.  Among middle-aged women, those in higher quintiles for total antioxidant capacity reported an associated lower risk for the development of type 2 diabetes versus women in the lowest quintile (P<0.0001 for all), according to Francesca Romana Mancini, PhD, of the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research in Paris, and colleagues.  However, this risk-reduction association plateaued when total antioxidant capacity reached 15 mmol per day, the researchers reported in the study, online in Diabetologia.  Fagherazzi said that he and his group were not surprised by the findings: "We were expecting to observe a decreased risk of diabetes in people with a diet rich in antioxidants. Moreover, we have shown that this decreased risk was observed independently of various type 2 diabetes risk factors, including the total daily energy intake and body mass index." The last sentence suggests that (Blood?) Oxidative Stress may be the major cause of developing Type 2 Diabetes.  Notice that a diet in high antioxidants doesn't eliminate the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes.  The consumption of antioxidants is a short-term treatment for BLOS, which is generating oxidative stress continuously. 

Antioxidants May Help Stave off Type-2 Diabetes

April 12, 2017: Here's a News Article reporting on the problem of "clean eating" diets causing osteoporosis.  From the article: "However, the damage has been done. The NOS survey found that four in ten young people (18 to 24) have tried a clean eating diet, and one in five have reduced how much milk and cheese they consume. The issue isn’t necessarily choosing to be healthier, it’s following the advice of people who have no real authority to talk about nutrition." With all of the mixed messages from the medical community regarding nutrition, can we really blame young people looking for healthy nutritional advice?  The only "clean eating" needed for health may be the avoidance of inorganic sulfur additives in some processed carbohydrates, which is the Low-BLOS Life diet.   

A Diet Followed By 4 In 10 Young People Could Be A 'Ticking Timebomb' For Bone Problems

April 2017: Here's a Brief from Harvard Health reporting on a new study that evaluated the impact of an anti-inflammatory diet on bone loss in women.  From the article: "The team looked at the diets of 160,191 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative and assigned each of them a dietary inflammation score based on 32 foods the women reported consuming in the three months prior to their enrollment. All the women completed dietary questionnaires and had scans to measure bone density at the beginning of the study and three and six years later.

At the beginning of the study, there was less correlation than expected between baseline markers of inflammation and bone density. However, over the course of the study, women following the least inflammatory diets had lost less bone than those with the most inflammatory diets. <snip> A low-inflammation diet rich in unsaturated fats, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is also important." Now more than ever, it's important to follow good nutritional advice.  Compare this article with the one below.  Maybe, the only "clean eating" needed for health may be the avoidance of inorganic sulfur additives in some processed carbohydrates, which is the Low-BLOS Life diet.   

Anti-inflammatory diet could reduce risk of bone loss in women

February 9, 2017: Here's a Press Release from the University of Washington that announced the results from a year long study of nearly 500 older, overweight or obese women (post menopausal) that made changes in fat or carbohydrate intake and some included an exercise regimen.  From the article: "Compared to the control group, women in the diet and diet and exercise groups had reduced F2-isoprostanes by 23 and 24 percent, respectively. However, F2-isoprostanes were not significantly reduced for women in the exercise group. F2-isoprostanes are a series of compounds produced by the reaction of free radicals with arachidonic acid. They are considered the gold-standard test for measuring oxidative stress in vivo.  'Women on diets also had lowered levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and increased levels of fluorescent oxidation products,' McTiernan said. 'Our trials support further pathways through which obesity and sedentary lifestyles could increase risk of several cancers.'." Bear in mind that the researchers did not measure the amount of sulfur in the diet, but processed foods containing carbohydrates will have much higher sulfur levels due to the use of sulfur based food preservatives and additives.  This study may be an indication of the possibility of Low-BLOS diet to reduce Blood Oxidative Stress.  More studies like this one are needed that include the use of BLOS# test to determine whether the level of BLOS is reduced. 

Researchers Find New Pathway Linking Diet And Cancer Risk

Blood Testing

In this section, you'll find research articles that report on the blood testing industry.

March 9, 2017: Here's a Press Release from Mayo Clinics that announced a new blood test that measures the concentration of ceramides, as a predictor of future cardiovascular event (i.e., heart attack or stroke).  The Wikipedia link for ceramides includes a list of chemicals that induce the generation of ceramides, which includes ROS.  The market for Lifestyle Choice blood tests is growing and Medical Research companies like Mayo Clinics are responding by providing more choices to consumers.  From the article: "The test, released commercially by Mayo Medical Laboratories in August 2016, measures blood concentrations of plasma ceramides, a class of lipids that are highly linked to cardiovascular disease processes. The study found that individuals with the highest levels of blood ceramides were found to have a 3- to 4-times greater risk of having a cardiovascular event compared with those with the lowest ceramide score, regardless of their LDL cholesterol level or the presence of a blockage in the heart’s arteries." The Wikipedia link for ceramides includes a list of substances that induce the generation of ceramides, which includes ROS.  Could elevated BLOS be the primary inducer of ceramides generation leading to cardiovascular events?

New Blood Test May Predict Cardiovascular Events In Patients With or Without Coronary Heart Disease

November 22, 2016: Here's a Press Release from Quest Diagnostics that announced an expanded program for residents of Colorado and Missouri that allows people to bypass their physician for a number of blood tests.  The market for Lifestyle Choice blood tests is growing and Medical Laboratory companies like Quest Diagnostics are responding by providing more choices to consumers.  From the article: "In today's consumer-driven health care environment, people want to play a more active role in managing their own health and wellness, and our Patient-Initiated Testing service is another resource for individuals to empower better health," said Steve Rusckowski, Quest Diagnostics President and CEO. "Consumers expect the most accurate and up-to-date diagnostic information to proactively manage their health so that they can make educated decisions, and we are pleased to begin offering this service to residents of Colorado and Missouri." In the future, health-savvy people will order the Lifestyle Choice BLOS# test at Quest Diagnostics and other Medical Laboratories. 

Quest Diagnostics to Expand Consumer Offering Through Patient-Initiated Testing Services in Colorado and Missouri

Type 2 Diabetes

In this section, you'll find research articles that report on the link between BLOS and Type 2 Diabetes.

March 26, 2018: Here's a news article which reports on Methylglyoxal (MG), a new compound associated with Type 2 Diabetes.  From the article: "The new research, however, suggests that in addition to controlling blood-sugar levels we should also consider additional treatments that work by preventing reactive metabolites, such as MG, from forming. But what would be the best way to achieve this?  Reactive metabolites can lead to extensive damage within cells. There is good news, though, in that there are molecules that can effectively stop these products from forming.  Antioxidants, such as vitamin C and vitamin E, have previously been suggested as possible diabetes treatments. However, studies using this approach have had mixed results. One possible explanation for this is that there are multiple reactive metabolites, not all of which are sensitive to antioxidants.  A new champion may now have emerged, though, in the form of the naturally occurring nutritional supplement called carnosine. This is a molecule that was recently shown to prevent formation of numerous reactive metabolites that are formed from glucose and fatty acids.  Clinical trials are ongoing, but initial findings are promising. They suggest that carnosine is able to reduce blood-sugar levels, as well as prevent multiple complications that are associated with diabetes. Even better, as this is classified as a dietary supplement rather than a drug, no prescription is needed in order to take carnosine."  Oxidative Stress appears to be finally emerging as the true, underlying cause of Type 2 Diabetes.  If elevated BLOS is the primary source of Oxidative Stress, then slow-release antioxidants would be needed to combat the Oxidative Stress.   

We have got the Causes and Effects of Type 2 Diabetes mixed up, Study Shows

March 20, 2017: Here's a news article which reports on short-term remission of Type 2 Diabetes using a combination of drug therapy and intensive lifestyle modification.  From the article: "About a third of patients with type 2 diabetes may be able to enjoy several months of drug-free remission if they stick to a short course of intensive lifestyle and drug therapy that reduces weight and controls blood glucose, say researchers.  Results from a pilot trial show that 12 weeks after stopping diabetes medications, 11 out of 27 patients (40.7%) with type 2 diabetes who received 4 months of a ramped-up metabolic regimen met HbA1c criteria for complete or partial diabetes remission, compared with four out of 28 controls (14.3%) who continued to receive standard diabetes care."  What happened to the other 60% that still had Type 2 Diabetes?  Why did the drug therapy and intensive lifestyle modification fail?  BLOS Management through a combination of Low BLOS Life diet and BLOS# tests may be the key to reversing Type 2 Diabetes. 

Short-term Remission of Type 2 Diabetes With Drug and Lifestyle

March 13, 2017: Here's a news article which reports on a 13% increased risk of Type 2 Diabetes from a long-term gluten-free diet.  From the article: "These findings suggest that there might be a link between gluten consumption and risk of diabetes, the researchers said. However, it is not clear why the people who ate more gluten were less likely to be diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes than those who ate less gluten, the researchers said.  One possible explanation is that the people who consumed more gluten also ate more fiber, which, as previous research has suggested, may help to lower a person’s diabetes risk. However, more research is needed to examine the relationship between gluten consumption and diabetes, the researchers said."  Perhaps the patients that developed Type 2 Diabetes substituted foods with more inorganic sulfur additives, which would increase BLOS level?  Flat breads and wraps often have high levels of inorganic sulfur additives compared to breads, especially fresh baked bread.  Maybe this research group will have some answers for us in 2047 after another 30 year study... 

Gluten-free diets may be tied to an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes

November 17, 2016: Here's a news article which reports that MitoQ, an Antioxidant, can lower Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes cells.  This study focuses on excessive ROS production in white blood cells, which is one of the two types of blood cells in BLOS.  From the article: "White blood cells from patients also produced more reactive oxygen species (ROS). While MitoQ did not have an impact on oxidative stress in inflammatory cells from controls, the treatment reduced oxidative stress in patient-derived cells to nearly normal levels." This article provides more evidence that BLOS is the underlying cause of Type 2 Diabetes, since the reduction or ROS production in white blood cells also reduced inflammation.  It's unclear whether a time-release antioxidant supplement or cellular inducer will be able to counter BLOS in the long-term.  More studies are needed to evaluate antioxidant therapies, which will require a new blood test to evaluate the effectiveness. 

MitoQ Antioxidant Lowers Oxidative Stress, Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes Cells


In this section, you'll find research articles that report on the link between BLOS and Obesity.

April 9, 2018: Here's a short research report that describes a simple study of binge-eating mice, which may help explain how humans can ingest high amounts of inorganic sulfur commonly found in the Western Diet.  From the article: "To mimic this obesogenic environment, the teams led by Mara Dierssen at CRG and Rafael Maldonado at UPF offered mice the option of a high-fat 'cafeteria' diet or a mixture of chopped-up commercial chocolate bars alongside their regular lab chow, before carrying out a detailed analysis of the animals' activity and feeding behaviour.  Working together with Cedric Notredame (CRG) and Elena Martín-García (UPF), the scientists found that as well as becoming obese, the mice started very early to show the signs of addiction-like behaviour and binge-eating in response to these enticing foods. <snip>  "Our results revealed that long-term exposure to hypercaloric diets impair the ability to control eating behaviour leading to negative effects on the cognitive processes responsible for a rational control of food intake" says Maldonado, head of the Neuropharmacology Laboratory at UPF. "  It's unclear whether the mice exhibited elevated BLOS, but it does reveal a potential mechanism for how elevated BLOS develops through the over consumption of food.  We'll need more studies like this to determine how to manage the Western Diet with the goal of BLOS management for improved health.  

Binge-eating Mice Reveal Obesity Clues

March 23, 2018: Here's a summarized research report that describes the latest Obesity figures for American adults.  From the article: "Obesity among adults increased to about 40 percent in 2015-2016, up from 34 percent in 2007-2008, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention researchers. That means two of every five adults now struggle with obesity.  Meanwhile, about 18.5 percent of kids were obese in 2015-2016, compared with 17 percent in 2007-2008."  Maybe it's time to consider some new theories for the cause of wide spread Obesity in America?  

Obesity Rates Keep Rising for U.S. Adults

November, 2017: Here's a summarized research report from Reader's Digest that describes the discovery of a gene that may be responsible for Obesity.  From the article: "As reported by Men’s Health, a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found a link between ankyrin-B and a higher risk of rapid fat cell developed. The gene causes fat cells to absorb glucose at a much faster rate than usual, which in turn causes the cells to double in size.  The gene is carried by millions of Americans (more than half of all Americans have been considered obese at one point in their lives) and disproportionately affects African-Americans, who are born with the gene at a rate of 8.4 percent, as opposed to the Caucasian rate of 1.3 percent."  This sounds very promising until you realize that the Obesity rates are much greater than the gene variant (mutation) rate.  However, if you read the Abstract (link below) for the Research Article, then you may notice something interesting: low levels of the Ankyrin-B protein causes obesity in the mice.  For humans, the more important question is whether low expression of the Ankyrin-B gene (normal or variant) is causing the high rates of Obesity.  I provided a link to a Research Article from 2012 that suggests a role for elevated BLOS, where ROS inhibits Ankyrin-B expression in mouse heart cells.  Could elevated BLOS be the major cause of Obesity in humans?     

Researchers May Have Found The Gene That Leads To Obesity

Abstract: Cell-Autonomous Adiposity Through Increased Cell Surface GLUT4 Due to Ankyrin-B Deficiency

Related Article 2012: Ankyrin-B Protein in Heart Failure

May 1, 2017: Here's an Opinion on replacing BMI with the BVI for a measure of Obesity.  From the article: "Today, the Mayo Clinic adds its voice to the chorus. The medical care provider announced that is recommending a new system for measuring body composition and weight distribution: the Body Volume Indicator (BVI). Unlike BMI, which is formulated by comparing an individual’s weight in relation to his or her height, BVI considers “other crucial factors such as fat mass, lean mass, and weight distribution when determining an individual’s body composition,” Jose Medina-Inojosa, a cardiovascular research fellow at the Mayo Clinic, told Fortune. In addition to weight and height, information on waist-to-hip ratio, total body fat percentage, and abdominal volume is factored when determining a score. <snip> Most importantly, however, he hopes a new system will help people realize that “obesity is a complex disease not only defined by weight.” He’d (Jose Medina-Inojosa, a cardiovascular research fellow at the Mayo Clinic) like to see the conversation move beyond a fixation on pounds gained and lost."  So, he wants us to focus on volume rather than mass?  Don't worry readers, the BVI looks rather difficult to calculate, which should make it much more expensive compared to the BMI and as useless in evaluating your inner health state.  Someday, BMI and BVI will be replaced with the BLOS# as a measure of health.   

It's Time to Ditch BMI as a Measure of Obesity

March 13, 2017: Here's an Opinion from the Rand Corporation that explores the myths of Obesity.  Although they deserve credit for their myth-busting, their only advice for obesity goes back to blaming the individual for eating too much and not exercising enough.  From the article: "If our study showed one thing, it's that there's no single subgroup of Americans we should be targeting — the trend lines are similar no matter who you are and where you live. It's true some groups are heavier than others, but we're all headed the same direction, and that's the trend we need to change. And nothing we found contradicts the most basic advice you've heard about how to keep weight off: Eat less, exercise more." I can't really blame these researchers for banging the same wrong drum, since they're blissfully unaware of the role of Long-term, Elevated BLOS as a cause of Obesity.   

Five Myths About American Obesity

January 31, 2017: Here's a news article which reports on the role of DNA methylation in obesity high rate of overweight and obese hospital workers in Houston.  Here are the Lowlights from the article: "Seventy-eight percent of Houston hospital employees are overweight or obese, Healthcare Finance News reports, citing a recent survey.  In 2012, the University of Texas Health Science Center asked 924 non-physician employees about their diet and health status and found a strong association between weight and lifestyle choices. For example, obese workers ate more high-calorie foods and were less active.  The survey also revealed dissatisfaction with hospital wellness initiatives, with 79% saying they were unhappy with the program at their facility. Obese employees had been the most dissatisfied." This hospital has a higher rate of overweight and obese workers than the general population.  Maybe a new Wellness program centered on BLOS Management would be more effective. 

Study finds high rate of obesity among hospital workers

January 18, 2017: Here's a news article which reports on the role of DNA methylation and obesity .  From the article: "The study is one of the largest to date to examine the link between BMI, obesity-related disease and DNA methylation -- a type of epigenetic modification that influences whether genes are turned on or off. Findings were published online January 17 by PLoS Medicine.
"Taken together, these results suggest that epigenetic modifications may help identify therapeutic targets to prevent or treat obesity-related disease in the population," says Mendelson, who is also a research fellow in the Population Sciences Branch of the NHLBI. "The next step is to understand how we can modify epigenetic modifications to prevent the development of cardiometabolic disease."
Since the study was done in blood cells, it also suggests that with further study, methylation markers could be easily accessible biomarkers to guide therapy -- bringing a "precision medicine" approach to preventive cardiology, says Mendelson." As usual, the medical researchers want to develop a drug to treat this new gene target.  What's missing in the discussion is what exactly is causing the change in DNA methylation.  I've provided a second link below that is a review article that includes a section of how ROS causes DNA methylation.  I also highlighted "blood cells" in that last cited section, which should get your attention.  The researchers used "blood cells" to identify the genes with unique DNA methylation patterns.  My interpretation:  Whatever is causing the DNA methylation changes is found throughout the human body.  BLOS would fit this criteria as a major source of ROS that is circulating throughout the body. 

Study finds link between obesity-related disease and epigenetic modifications

Causes and Consequences of Age-Related Changes in DNA Methylation: A Role for ROS

December 19, 2016: Here's a news article which reports on the controversy surrounding a new research study sponsored by the Food Industry that attempts to discredit sugar guidelines.  From the article: "A prominent medical journal on Monday published a scathing attack on global health advice to eat less sugar. Warnings to cut sugar, the study argued, are based on weak evidence and cannot be trusted.  But the review, published in The Annals of Internal Medicine, quickly elicited sharp criticism from public health experts because the authors have ties to the food and sugar industries.  A report in September showed that those efforts began in the 1960s when the sugar industry paid scientists to cast doubt on the link between sugar and heart disease and promote saturated fat as the culprit instead. More recently, The New York Times found that Coca-Cola had been funding scientists who played down the connection between sugary drinks and obesity. And The Associated Press reported in June that food companies paid for studies that claimed candy-eating children weigh less." Linkage of a diet high in sugar to obesity and other health problems isn't causation.  The real culprit is probably the use of sulfur based food preservatives, which were introduced into the Food Industry prior to the 1960s.  Maybe it's time to regulate foods rich in sulfur that can induce the ROS  response in blood cells? 

Study Tied to Food Industry Tries to Discredit Sugar Guidelines

August 31, 2016: Here's a news article which reports that a tax on sugar may reduce obesity.  From the article: "Consuming these drinks has been linked to obesity and associated conditions such as type 2 diabetes. Controlling it at the state level is a way to control reduce today's burden of obesity, among both adults and children." Linkage of a diet high in sugar to obesity isn't causation.  Maybe it's time to regulate foods rich in sulfur that can induce the ROS  response in blood cells? 

Can a Sugar Tax Stop Obesity?

July 19, 2016: Here's a news article which reports that higher numbers of American teens have pre-diabetes and diabetes.  Maybe it's time to manage BLOS in our children? 

Nearly One in Five American Teens Has Prediabetes or Diabetes

July 19, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on a large study of patients using different drugs for treating diabetes.  Apparently, diabetes drugs that target elevated blood glucose levels don't treat diabetes.  Maybe it's time to target elevated BLOS instead of glucose, which is a symptom of diabetes? 

No Clear Survival Benefit Seen Among Diabetes Drugs

July 14, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on a recent study which determined that obesity causes premature death.  From the article: "The negative health effects of excess body weight and its link to chronic illnesses such as diabetes, heart disease, stroke, respiratory disease and cancer have been well documented." 

Study finds fat kills, casting doubt on "obesity paradox"

July 13, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on a study which determined that obesity causes Type 2 Diabetes and heart disease.  From the article: "Obesity hinders the body's ability to process blood sugar. Over time, too many spikes in blood sugar can lead to type 2 diabetes, the researchers explained. Diabetes in turn is a known risk factor for heart disease and other health problems, such as vision loss and amputations." 

Rising blood sugar hitting more obese adults

June 29, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on a new partnership between IBM Watson Health and the American Diabetes Association for the development of new apps to manage diabetes.  From the article: "Of the estimated 165,000 health applications currently on the market, about 1,000 relate to the treatment or prevention of diabetes, and according to a release from Watson, that quantity hasn’t always translated into quality. Through this contest, leaders from both Watson and the ADA hope that will change."  Maybe someday, a new app will provide guidance on dietary choices for the management of BLOS, and therefore, diabetes.

Watson Health, ADA Launch Contest for Creation of New Diabetes Management Apps


In this section, you'll find research articles that report on the link between BLOS and risk of Cancers.

April 9, 2018: Here's a news article that reports on the role of Oxidative Stress in tumor progression due to the lack of a tumor suppressor gene, RUNX3.  From the article: “In the team's experiments on lung cancer cells, the researchers observed that cancer cells without RUNX3 were unable to put a halt on cancer progression due to exposure to oxidative stress from outside of the cells, and drew a possible link to the involvement of a protein TGFβ in this observation.”  Could BLOS management slow down the development of tumors that lack the RUNX3 gene?  Could BLOS management improve the efficacy of cancer fighting drugs?

Oxidative stress due to lack of tumor suppressor gene promotes cancer progression, study shows

March 29, 2018: Here's a news article that reports on the increased risk of cancers for young obese adults.  From the article: “Cancer in adults younger than 50 years is occurring with more frequency. The increase may be due to obesity, according to a new study.  As overweight and obesity have become a major public health problem almost everywhere around the globe, cancer in young adults is also increasing, writes Nathan A. Berger, MD, Hanna-Payne Professor of Experimental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, in a review article published online March 23 in Obesity.  With the worldwide obesity pandemic, there could be an "explosive increase" in obesity-associated cancers in people younger than 50 years, Berger told Medscape Medical News.  Obesity is associated not only with an increase in the incidence of certain cancers but also with a worse prognosis for patients with cancer who are obese, Berger said.”  Dr. Berger should consider the possibility that long-term, elevated BLOS causes Obesity and generates ROS continuously, which could damage DNA and cause Cancer. 

Obesity Linked to Increased Cancer Frequency in Young Adults

March 7, 2018: Here's a news article that reports on the increased risk of cancers for people that consume processed foods.  From the article: “Researchers examined data from dietary surveys completed by nearly 105,000 adults who didn’t have cancer. By the time half the participants had been in the study for at least five years, 2,228 cancer cases had been diagnosed – including 739 breast cancers, 281 prostate cancers, and 153 colorectal cancers.  Every 10 percent increase in the amount of heavily processed foods and drinks people consumed was associated with a 12 percent higher risk of developing all cancers and an 11 percent higher risk of developing breast cancer during the study, researchers report in The BMJ.  <snip> It’s also not clear what it is about processed foods that might lead to cancer, noted Martin Lajous, author of an accompanying editorial and a researcher at the National Institute of Public Health in Mexico City and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston.  While more research is needed to verify the connection between processed foods in cancer, it’s possible that food additives, certain nutrients or contaminants from packages or other factors might have contributed to malignancies that developed, Lajous said by email.  That said, plenty of evidence links a healthy diet to a lower risk of cancer and other chronic diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease, Lajous advised.  “Eating a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and fish reduces the risk of cancer,” Lajous said.  “We know that some processed foods have a higher content of saturated fat, added sugars, salt, and lower fiber,” Lajous added. “This makes some processed foods unhealthy, so while we wait to know whether unprocessed foods are linked to cancer or not, patients should seek to increase their intake of healthy foods.”  Here's an educated guess on the ingredients in processed foods causing an increased risk of Cancer:  it's the inorganic sulfur additives. 

Highly Processed Foods Tied to Increased Risk of Certain Cancers

May 1, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on the lower risk of breast cancer for women that take low-dose aspirin.  From the article: “The study used data from more than 57,000 women who were part of the California Teachers Study. In the 23% of women who reported using low-dose aspirin regularly, researchers saw a 20% reduction in the risk of developing HR-positive/HER2 negative breast cancer, some of the most common forms of the disease. <snip> The new study did not look at why there might be an association between lower cancer risk and aspirin, but author Leslie Bernstein, a professor in the Division of Cancer Etiology in the Department of Population Sciences at the Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, said one reason may be because aspirin can lower inflammation. 'Simply things like obesity or inflammatory conditions are a risk factor for breast cancer, so this may be one reason it could help,' Bernstein said.” Here's an alternative explanation.  Long-term elevated BLOS generates ROS that increases the risk of Cancers and it promotes atherosclerosis.  The shrinking of the inside diameter of blood vessels due to atherosclerosis may be causing longer residence times of ROS+ blood cells in capillary networks, which would increase the amount of ROS permeating in the surrounding tissue.  Low-dose aspirin would reduce clotting and improve blood flow through these capillary networks, which would reduce the amount of ROS diffusing into the surround tissue.

Low-dose aspirin linked to lower breast cancer risk, study says

February 28, 2017: Here's a news article out of the UK that reports on the link between being overweight and an increased risk of 11 types of cancers.  From the article: “I think now the public and physicians really need to pay attention to obesity with respect to cancer,” said Marc Gunter, a co-author of the research from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. “Telling people to avoid being overweight not only reduces their risk of, say, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, it also reduces their risk of many different cancers.” Links are NOT Causes.  If Ultra-exogenous Sulfide Formation (USF) is ultimately responsible for promoting elevated BLOS and a greater risk of Cancers, then a low Sulfur diet may offer hope for the future.  See the Low BLOS Life for current advice on how to reduce BLOS.

Increased risk of 11 types of cancer linked to being overweight, researchers warn

January 16, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on the growing number of diets claiming to prevent or cure cancers.  The first sentence of the article tells you everything you need to know: “While there is no magic diet that will cure or prevent cancer, intervention in a patient’s diet will help them maintain an acceptable quality of life – as long as that intervention comes from a medically qualified professional with no vested interests.”  People are desperate to find some way to prevent or cure cancer.  If Ultra-exogenous Sulfide Formation (USF) is ultimately responsible for promoting elevated BLOS and a greater risk of Cancers, then a low Sulfur diet may offer hope for the future.

Everything you wanted to know about cancer diets

December 20, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on the large increase in deaths due to Cancer, Diabetes, and Heart Disease in Africa.  From the article:  “More people in Africa will die from diseases such as cancer, heart problems or diabetes than infectious diseases by 2030, according to the World Health Organisation, which found the continent recorded the highest prevalence rates of high blood pressure in the world. Lifestyle and behavioural choices such as smoking, drinking, lack of exercise and unhealthy eating are to blame for increased mortality rates from NCDs, with the WHO study finding that most people in the region have at least one risk factor that predisposes them to disease. One in four have at least three risk factors.”  West Africa used to have a Low BLOS diet with very low rates of these health problems.  The growth of the adoption of the Western Diet around the world is the likely cause of the BLOS epidemic.

Non-infectious Diseases Such as Cancer Rising Sharply in Africa

December 7, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on the large increase in Cancer cases around the world in the past decade.  From the article:  “In 2015, there were 17.5 million diagnoses and 8.7 million deaths in the world from the disease, the researchers found. The rise in cancer cases was mainly due to population aging and growth, along with changes in age-specific cancer rates, according to the Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration study. .  The lifetime risk of developing cancer was one in three for men and one in four for women, the investigators found.”  Elevated BLOS would be like smoking 24/7.  The ROS+ blood cells continuously produce ROS causing DNA damage throughout the body.  The accumulation of DNA damage causes cancer.  The growth of the adoption of the Western Diet around the world is the likely cause of the BLOS epidemic.

Cancer Cases Up 33% Globally in Past 10 Years

November 3, 2016: Here's a news article that reports that smoking one pack of cigarettes per day causes 150 mutations in all lung cells of a smoker per year.  From the article:  “Publishing in the journal Science on Thursday, the researchers said the findings show a direct link between the number of cigarettes smoked in a lifetime and the number of mutations in the DNA of cancerous tumors.”  Smoke contains known carcinogens that cause DNA damage, which accumulates over time leading to cancer in the lung, bladder, liver, and throat.  Elevated BLOS would be like smoking 24/7.  The ROS+ blood cells continuously produce ROS causing DNA damage throughout the body.

Smoking One Pack Per Day Causes 150 mutations in All Lung Cells

September 22, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on the history of scientists trying to link cancer to alcohol consumption.  From the article:  “This past March, Jennie Connor, a preventative and social medicine researcher from New Zealand’s University of Otago, published a review of studies looking at the correlation between drinking and cancer, concluding that 'there is strong evidence that alcohol causes cancer at seven sites in the body and probably others.' Her analysis credits alcohol with nearly 6 percent of all cancer deaths worldwide.”  Note that the article doesn't delve into a mechanism for how alcohol consumption increases the risk of cancer.  Alcohol induces ROS production by the liver for a short period of time, which can cause DNA damage throughout the body.  The accumulation of DNA damage leads to cancer.  In contrast to alcohol consumption, elevated BLOS would be like smoking 24/7.  The ROS+ blood cells continuously produce ROS causing DNA damage.

The Muddled Link Between Booze and Cancer

August 24, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on the link of multiple cancers to obesity.  From the article:  “Only smoking comes close” as an environmental factor affecting cancer risk, Dr. Colditz said. “And that’s an important message for nonsmokers. Obesity now goes to the top of the list of things to focus on.”  Elevated BLOS would be like smoking 24/7.  The ROS+ blood cells continuously produce ROS causing DNA damage.

Obesity is Linked to at Least 13 Types of Cancer

July 20, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on the rising rates of cancer in the UK.  From the article:  Sir Harpal Kumar, Cancer Research UK’s chief executive, said: “In 2014 we prioritised increased investment in pancreatic, lung, and oesophageal cancers and brain tumours in our research strategy as survival rates in these cancers remain appallingly low, and they are extremely difficult to treat when diagnosed at a late stage."  Maybe BLOS Management will improve the performance of cancer drugs?

Cancer Research UK boosts efforts to overcome deadliest cancer as rates climb

July 20, 2016: Here's a news article that provides the opinions of James Watson, one of the co-discoverers of DNA.  Apparently, Dr. Watson is not a big fan of the Cancer Moonshot and Anti-Oxidants.  Of course, he is not aware of BLOS and it's possible role in causing cancers.

DNA pioneer James Watson: The cancer moonshot is ‘crap’ but there is still hope

Heart Disease

In this section, you'll find research articles that report on the link between BLOS and the development of Heart Disease.

April 8, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on the increased rate of Heart Attacks in folks with premature greying of their hair.  From the article: "Scientists have discovered that hair whitening can indicate an increased risk of damage to arteries supplying the heart with blood. Some of the biological mechanisms driving coronary artery disease are also responsible for greying hair, they believe.  These include impaired DNA repair, oxidative stress, inflammation, hormonal changes and the halting of cell growth.  The findings could pave the way to identifying patients most at risk of heart disease just by looking at their hair colour.

Patients with damaged arteries had higher greying scores than those whose arteries were healthy. They were also more likely to have calcium deposits in their arteries.  Hair whitening turned out to be an independent predictor of narrowing and hardening of the coronary arteries along with high blood pressure and abnormal blood fat levels."  Could long-term elevated BLOS being responsible for premature greying of hair in addition to heart disease?   

Going grey early increases heart attack risk

December 27, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on the increased rate of Heart Attacks during the Holidays.  From the article: "So some of the explanations that have been previously suggested, such as higher respiratory illness or increased winter air pollution, seem less plausible.  Changes in diet and alcohol consumption and general stress cannot be ruled out as they are common to Christmas everywhere."  An increase in dietary inorganic sulfur during the Holidays may be the underlying cause of an increase in Heart Attacks.  Patients that suffered from congestive heart failure (CHF) had the highest level of BLOS reported.  According to my Hypotheses, extremely high levels of BLOS are only possible with longer periods of ultra-exogenous sulfide formation (USF) from increased dietary consumption of inorganic sulfur.  

Heart Attack Deaths More Likely During Holidays

December 22, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on the link between Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Syndrome (MetS).  From the article: "Ox-LDL (oxidized low density lipoprotein) may reflect core mechanisms through which MetS components develop and progress in parallel with insulin resistance and could be a clinically relevant predictor of MetS development," the authors write."  This observation is consistent with my new Hypothesis.  Note that the major cause of Oxidative Stress was not reported, but it is most likely BLOS. 

Higher Oxidative Stress Linked to Metabolic Syndrome


In this section, you'll find research articles that report on the link between BLOS and Hypertension.

April 18, 2018: Here's a news article that reports on the role of higher sodium in the reduction of hypertension for folks with a specific gene mutation.  This wide-spread gene mutation may explain the shifting scientific positions on the role of sodium in hypertension.  From the article: "The research team previously discovered that a natural gene variation that occurs in 48 percent of people increases a person's chances of having blood pressure that's sensitive to salt. Their new study revealed how this gene variant prevents the body from eliminating excess salt.  The gene variant causes a sodium (salt) transporter called NBCe2 to overwork, bringing too much sodium filtered in the kidney back into the body, particularly after a high-salt meal. That means that consuming too much salt could be especially dangerous for people with this gene variant.  Blood pressure that's sensitive to salt can be difficult to diagnose and treat, according to the researchers, because about 14 percent of people can have normal blood pressure and still be salt-sensitive."  So, we should be seeing a new NBCe2 gene mutation test in the very near future, which will help physician's make better recommendations on diet for reducing hypertension.  This type of test is very routine, since it only requires a small blood sample for targeted gene sequencing and analysis.  Stay tuned! 

Gene Twist Can Make Your Blood Pressure Spike from Salt

November 20, 2017: Here's a news article/opinion that reports on new guidelines for hypertension that will increase the number of Americans suffering from high blood pressure.  From the article: "The pressure is on — new guidelines recently released by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology have changed the definition of high blood pressure or hypertension.  Previous guidelines that have been used for many years defined high blood pressure as 140/90 millimeters of mercury or greater. Now, the new guidelines defines high blood pressure as 130/80 or greater."   This increase in the percent of American adults with hypertension is more in line with the high percent (~67%) suffering from long term elevated BLOS.  

Dr. Samadi: New guidelines mean 50% of people have hypertension

April 25, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on the role of higher sodium in the reduction of hypertension, which is the exact opposite of medical opinion for the past few decades.  From the article: "The American Heart Association recommends consuming no more than 2,300 milligrams of sodium daily, equal to a teaspoon of ordinary iodized table salt.

High blood pressure is a known risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Hence, lowering salt intake is supposed to lower blood pressure and thus reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. But the study found that supposition to be unfounded.

Moreover, the lowest blood pressure was recorded by those who consumed 4,000 milligrams or more a day — amounts considered dangerously high by medical authorities such as the American Heart Association."  Hooray for Salt!?!  Will we start seeing high-sodium foods in the future?  Maybe it's time to "think outside the box" and consider other mechanisms for hypertension, such as BLOS? 

Higher sodium, lower blood pressure.  You read that right.

January 16, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on the role of coffee in fighting age-related inflammation.  From the article: "Next, researchers investigated why some older adults showed lower activation of the genes that encode IL-1-beta, and found an interesting correlation: The older participants who reported that they consumed more caffeinated beverages generally showed a lower activation of these inflammation-causing genes.

When researchers looked again at the blood samples of the older participants, they found that those whose blood had higher levels of caffeine and its breakdown products showed lower activation of these genes than participants whose blood had lower levels of caffeine and its breakdown products.

This finding may "explain why caffeine consumption correlates with lower blood pressure," Davis told Live Science.

The researchers noted in their study that lowering chronic inflammation in older people may prevent a number of age-associated diseases, including high blood pressure, stiff arteries and other cardiovascular problems, although more research is needed to confirm this."  Hooray for Coffee!?!  Notice that there's no information regarding what causes the induction of the inflammation genes (IL-1-beta).  ROS (oxidative stress) is the culprit in age-related inflammation and all of the long-term health problems.  Reducing BLOS is the better solution than drinking a pot of coffee everyday. 

Cup of Joe Could Fight Age-Related Inflammation

Healthcare Costs

In this section, you'll find research articles that report on the healthcare costs of BLOS.

February 4, 2017: Here's an article that provides a wealth of information on the costs of health care in retirement including a section that focuses on chronic illnesses.  From the article: "Chronic conditions are costly. Having five or more chronic conditions—like diabetes, cancer, heart disease, or Parkinson’s—raised the median annual out-of-pocket expenses by 75%, according to Kaiser.  The grim truth is that people with multiple chronic conditions actually spend less on health care over the course of their lifetime, since they don’t live as long as their healthy counterparts."  BLOS management may improve or cure some chronic conditions, which would reduce health care costs. 

The Real Cost of Health Care in Retirement

December 21, 2016: Here's an Editorial describing how "getting in shape" can reduce one's risk of premature death and save money.  From the article: "Two numbers are, to me, particularly emblematic of what science had to tell us about fitness this year.  The first is 42 percent and represents the extent by which people’s risk for premature death rises if they are out of shape, according to a study published in July. That number almost equals the risk of early death associated with heavy smoking.  The second figure is $2,500 and is the amount of money that each of us most likely could save annually on medical costs related to heart disease if we walked for 30 minutes most days, according to a wonderfully pragmatic study released in September."  My own estimate of $4,800/year in healthcare costs attributed to elevated BLOS is in line with this estimate.  Note that reducing weight by maintaining an exercise regiment is beneficial, but relying on one's weight as an indicator of health is erroneous with respect to BLOS.  The BLOS# for non-hospitalized volunteers with normal weight had a range of 5-20.  Optimal health will most likely correspond to a BLOS# below 5. 

Savings, Longevity, and the Year in Fitness

July 14, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on the rising healthcare costs in the USA.  From the article: "Of the total $3.35 trillion spending projected this year, hospital care accounts for the largest share, about 32 percent. Doctors and other clinicians account for nearly 20 percent. Prescription drugs bought through pharmacies account for about 10 percent."  Maybe it's time to try a new approach, such as BLOS Management, for reducing healthcare costs?

New peak for US health care spending: $10,345 per person

Clinical Trials

In this section, you'll find research articles that report on the link between BLOS and the high failure rate of Drug Clinical Trials.

January 12, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on the FDA's new guidance on how to evaluate clinical trials.  From the article: "The guidance goes on to describe the three families of endpoints: primary, secondary and exploratory, noting that when there “is more than one primary endpoint and success on any one alone could be considered sufficient to demonstrate the drug’s effectiveness, the rate of falsely concluding the drug is effective is increased due to multiple comparisons." Well, that's one way to improve on the 90% failure rate in Phase 2/3 Clinical Trials.  This just sounds like the FDA is moving the goalposts... 

Multiple Endpoints in Clinical Trials: FDA Issues Draft Guidance

December 19, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on the abysmal success rate of clinical trials.  From the article: "Authors Katarzyna Smietana, Marcin Siatkowski, and Martin Møller used Informa's Pharmaprojects database to track the clinical and regulatory phase progression of more than 9,200 compounds between 1996 and 2014, ultimately finding that nearly 90% of clinical trials end in failure. More importantly, though, the success rate of clinical trials rose between 2012-2014 to 11.6% from an all-time measured low of just 7.5% between 2008 and 2011." A 90% failure rate should prompt someone in Big Pharma to consider the possibility that Variable BLOS levels in Phase 2/3 patients may be the root cause of so many failures.  The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results... 

Great News: Clinical Trial Success Rates Are Up for the First Time in More Than a Decade

December 14, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on Phase 3 failure of Proteon Therapeutic's experimental drug treating chronic kidney disease.  From the article: "We're clearly very disappointed that we missed the primary endpoint," CEO Tim Noyes said in a conference call, but he added that the company was encouraged by results for the trial's secondary and tertiary goals.  The Phase III clinical trials are large-scale human trials designed to test efficacy and monitor side effects, among other things. The trials are the last hurdle before commercialization of a drug.  Proteon Therapeutics should check the patient information in Phase 3 to determine whether BLOS interfered with the clinical trial.  Noyes said the company will continue enrollment in the coming Phase III study, with an increased trial size. The company will meet with the Food and Drug Administration and may discuss re-evaluating what the right endpoints are to study for efficacy. The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results... 

Failure in late clinical trial pummels Proteon Therapeutics stock

November 25, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on the Phase 3 failure of Eli Lilly's experimental drug treating dementia in patients with Alzheimer's disease.  From the article: "This is disappointing but not a great surprise,” added Robert Howard, Professor of Old Age Psychiatry at UCL who believes the decades of failed drug trials highlight the challenge that still lies ahead. “What we have learned from several decades of research and hundreds of failed Alzheimer’s disease trials is that no matter how promising the basic and early phase data, all that really matters is the results of these late phase effectiveness trials.”  Maybe BLOS is interfering with the efficacy of the drug in patients during later phases of clinical trials?  Eli Lilly should check the patient information in both Phase 2 and 3 to determine whether BLOS could be interfering with the clinical trial. 

Promising Alzheimer's drug fails in the last phase of clinical trials

September 22, 2016: Here's a news article that applauds and dismisses the recent announcement by Mark Zuckerberg (FaceBook Founder) and his wife, Dr. Priscilla Chan, that they will donate $3B over ten years to end disease.  From the article: "The National Institutes of Health, which funds much of the same basic biomedical research that Zuckerberg and Chan's new initiative will, spends 10 times that much every year — and there is still plenty of disease to go around."   Maybe the $3B is a "drop in the bucket" compared to the current investment in drug development by both governments and the private sector.  According to Einstein, the definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.  Currently, there are only two prevailing theories of disease: infectious pathogens and DNA mutations.  Proper food safety and sanitation have minimized the impact of pathogens.  Sequencing of the human genome was promised as the key to preventing and curing many diseases.  Yet, here we are at a time in human history where food is abundant and safe and we have the highest rate of disease.  Maybe it's time to consider elevated BLOS as the source of many diseases?

Here's a Reality Check on Mark Zuckerberg's $3B Plan to End Disease

September 20, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on the reform of a 2007 law, which will require full disclosure of the results of all clinical trials.  From the article: "The practice is bad for science because it means that the literature is biased towards positive results, and researchers will unknowingly repeat failed experiments."   This has been a problem in all of the sciences for years.  Who reports negative results?  Maybe the role of variable BLOS in the failure of Phase 2/3 Clinical Trials will finally be evident with full disclosure?  Let's hope we don't have to wait decades to find out.

U.S. clampdown on clinical-trial reporting is long overdue

September 18, 2016: Here's an opinion piece, where Peter J. Pitts discusses the advantage of adaptive clinical trials.  From the article: "In a traditional clinical trial, researchers plan out every element of the trial -- from the number of participants to the type of data to be collected -- before they begin testing. They stick to this rigid master plan until the trial is complete. But in an adaptive trial, researchers preplan certain modifications that they can make partway through the trial, based on the results they've uncovered so far."  Careful measurement of the BLOS# during the early stage of Phase 2 Clinical Trials may reveal a BLOS sensitivity of the experimental drug.  BLOS management may be the key towards improving the efficacy of new drugs.

Build better drugs faster with nontraditional, adaptive clinical trials: Peter J. Pitts (Opinion)

July 19, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on the difficulties in finding patients for clinical trials.  From the article: "Roughly 1.7 million patients participate in 80,000 pharmaceutical company sponsored trials worldwide each year."   Higher success rate of clinical trials would mean less participants needed.  Maybe it's time to try a new approach, such as BLOS Management, for testing new drugs in Phase 2 Clinical Trials?

Pharma companies test new ways to attract patients to clinical trials

July 19, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on the 99.6% failure rate of drugs that treat Alzheimer's Disease.  Maybe it's time to try a new approach, such as BLOS Management, for testing new drugs in Phase 2 Clinical Trials?

Clinical Trials For New Alzheimer’s Medication

Other BLOS-sibilities

In this section, you'll find research articles that report on the link between BLOS and other health issues.

March 2018: Here's an Opinion piece on a recent research article that reports on a survey of patients that exhibited lower rates of Depression when maintaining the DASH diet.  From the article: "Laurel J. Cherian, an assistant professor of vascular neurology at Rush University Medical Center, performed a study to firm up the relationship between the DASH diet and lower rates of depression. Cherian will present her research at the meeting of the American Academy of Neurology this month.  “There is evidence linking healthy lifestyle changes to lower rates of depression and this study sought to examine the role that diet plays in preventing depression,” Cherian said in a press release.  For more than six years, Cherian screened 964 participants over the age of 60 for signs of depression every year. She also asked them to complete a 144-item questionnaire focused on the foods they ate.  Cherian then divided the participants into three groups based on how closely their diets mirrored the DASH diet.  Even after controlling for variables known to affect depression, such as age and education level, Cherian found that the group that most closely adhered to the DASH diet was less likely to experience depression. And conversely, those that strayed the most from the diet were the most likely to show symptoms of depression."  The DASH diet is an extreme form of the Low BLOS Life diet, which appears to help patients with Depression.  Clearly, a new BLOS# test is needed in clinical studies like this one to determine whether the dietary changes are reducing BLOS with the improvement in Depression and other mental health problems.     

Diet to Reduce Blood Pressure May Help Combat Depression

May 3, 2017: Here's an Opinion piece on a recent research article that reports on a small study of patients that reversed Alzheimer's disease through lifestyle changes.  From the article: "Last summer, a research group from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) quietly published the results of a new approach in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. What they found was striking. Although the size of the study was small, every participant demonstrated such marked improvement that almost all were found to be in the normal range on testing for memory and cognition by the study’s end. Functionally, this amounts to a cure.  <snip> The results from UCLA aren’t due to an incredible new drug or medical breakthrough, though. Rather, the researchers used a protocol consisting of a variety of different lifestyle modifications to optimise metabolic parameters – such as inflammation and insulin resistance – that are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Participants were counselled to change their diet (a lot of veggies), exercise, develop techniques for stress management, and improve their sleep, among other interventions. The most common ‘side effect’ was weight loss."  The elimination of simple (processed) carbohydrates resulted in weight loss, which may be due to lowering BLOS level.  Elevated long-term BLOS may be causing Alzheimer's disease and the management of BLOS may be the key to reversing (cure) this dreaded disease.  Clearly, a new BLOS# test is needed in clinical studies like this one to determine whether the dietary changes are reducing BLOS with the reversal of Alzheimer's disease.    

Lifestyle changes, not a magic pill, can reverse Alzheimer's

April 12, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on risk factors for heart disease increasing the risk of Alzheimer's disease.  From the article: "Being obese, smoking or having high cholesterol, high blood pressure or diabetes in midlife is associated with an increased risk of dementia later in life. Now researchers have found these five risk factors correlate with the development, years later, of amyloid brain plaques, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease.  <snip> After adjusting for age and other factors, they found that compared with those with no midlife risk factors, those with one had an 88 percent increased risk for elevated levels of plaques, and those with two or more had nearly triple the risk. <snip> The lead author, Dr. Rebecca F. Gottesman, an associate professor of neurology at Johns Hopkins, said that amyloid plaque is one factor in Alzheimer’s disease, but not the only one.  Why this happens is not known. 'Either there’s a vulnerable period — midlife or younger — or there’s a cumulative effect over the decades.' Dr. Gottesman said. 'Or it might be both.' "  Four of the five risk factors are outcomes of long-term, elevated BLOS.  Alzheimer's disease researchers should consider BLOS as the underlying cause.   

Heart Risks in Mid-Life Tied to Brain Plaques in Alzheimer's

April 6, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on "metabolic syndrome" as a new.'Silent Killer'.  From the article: "Researchers from the Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine at Florida Atlantic University make the case that metabolic syndrome -- a cluster of three of more risk factors that include abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, high blood pressure, abnormal lipids, and insulin resistance, a precursor of type 2 diabetes -- is the new "silent killer," analogous to hypertension in the 1970s."  As usual, risk factors are casually linked as a cause of death.  There's nothing new here, except BLOS may be the underlying cause of all of these risk factors.  Modern Medicine needs to move past "risk factors" and propose mechanistic models on how diet is causing these health problems.   

Metabolic Syndrome is the New 'Silent Killer', Warns Researchers

March 7, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on sub-optimal dietary factors related to death from several long-term, elevated BLOS health problems.  From the article: "Consumption of 10 foods/nutrients associated with cardiometabolic diseases: fruits, vegetables, nuts/seeds, whole grains, unprocessed red meats, processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), polyunsaturated fats, seafood omega-3 fats, and sodium. <snip> In 2012, suboptimal intake of dietary factors was associated with an estimated 318 656 cardiometabolic deaths, representing 45.4% of cardiometabolic deaths. The highest proportions of cardiometabolic deaths were estimated to be related to excess sodium intake, insufficient intake of nuts/seeds, high intake of processed meats, and low intake of seafood omega-3 fats."  Notice anything missing?  Apparently, processed carbohydrates, the source of inorganic sulfur additives and the underlying cause of BLOS, was not investigated.

Association Between Dietary Factors and Mortality From Heart Disease, Stroke, and Type 2 Diabetes in the United States

February 10, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on the role of oxidative stress and Lupus.  From the article: "Typically, this protein - mitochondrial antiviral signaling or MAVS - is responsible for recognizing viral infections,'explains Buskewicz, who adds that her team's publication is 'the first paper showing that the interferon pathway can be activated by something other than viral infection or nucleic acids.' The culprit of this phenomenon? Oxidative stress in cells, which is sufficient to induce the clustering of MAVS at the mitochondria - the energy-producing organelles within each cell - and drive interferon production in the absence of viruses. 'Typically, this protein - mitochondrial antiviral signaling or MAVS - is responsible for recognizing viral infections,' explains Buskewicz, who adds that her team's publication is 'the first paper showing that the interferon pathway can be activated by something other than viral infection or nucleic acids.'  The culprit of this phenomenon? Oxidative stress in cells, which is sufficient to induce the clustering of MAVS at the mitochondria - the energy-producing organelles within each cell - and drive interferon production in the absence of viruses."  As usual, the researcher assumes that the source of oxidative stress in internal.  Could Lupus be induced by elevated BLOS?  BLOS management may be an effective tool for managing Lupus.   

Stressed out interferons reveal potential key to alternative lupus treatment

January 23, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on a 10 year study of mental processes in older obese adults.  From the article: "These findings suggest that memory training is less beneficial for older adults with obesity, but we really don't know why," said lead author Daniel Clark. He is an investigator in Indiana University's Center for Aging Research.  Although the study wasn't designed to show a cause-and-effect relationship, Clark said there is growing evidence of a link between obesity and brain function. Imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with more rapid loss of brain volume in an area related to memory, he noted."  Could memory training in obese adults be improved by BLOS management?  Is this more evidence that long-term elevated BLOS may be causing damage in the brain like Alzheimer's Disease?

Could Obesity Undermine Memory Training in Older Adults?

January 23, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on the use of a drug to inhibit enzymatic plasma sulfide production for the treatment of sleep apnea.  From the article: "The carotid bodies are the primary organ for sensing oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in arterial blood. Glomus cells in the carotid bodies produce the enzymes heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2), which generates carbon monoxide (CO) when oxygen levels are appropriate, and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), which generates hydrogen sulfide (H2S) when oxygen levels dip.

During normal breathing during sleep, CO prevents the production of H2S by inhibiting CSE. When apnea begins and oxygen levels drop, however, CSE produces H2S, which stimulates the carotid bodies to increase breathing, heart rate and blood pressure. This leads to a sudden awakening.

Prabhakar and colleagues tested two ways to manipulate this system by modulating the enzymes, CSE and HO-2, involved in CB signaling. When they gave a CSE inhibitor, L-propargyl glycine (L-PAG) by injection or by mouth to mice lacking HO-2 or rats predisposed to heightened CB activity, it reduced the frequency of apnea, underscoring the role of H2S in triggering apnea."  There are two problems with this animal study. 1) The animals used do not have elevated BLOS.  Excessive weight is a major risk factor for sleep apnea, which suggests that elevated BLOS plays a role.  2) Further inhibition of CSE in patients with elevated BLOS will lead to even lower plasma sulfide levels, which may cause CHF.  Sleep Apnea may be caused by elevated BLOS, where the body is recovering from low plasma sulfide levels during sleep.  This assumes that lower blood flow rates during sleep would limit the amount of ROS generated by BLOS, while CSE is continuously generating sulfide throughout the body.  The temporal increase in plasma sulfide concentration may be causing the sleep apnea episodes.  The increase in breathing rate caused by sleep apnea would increase blood oxygen concentration (substrate for ROS production) and blood flow rate.  With respect to my recent research article, Sleep Apnea may improve pathogen inactivation by ROS while sleeping at the cost of a restful night of sleep.  BLOS management may be an effective tool for managing Sleep Apnea.   

Regulating gasotransmitters could improve care for sleep apnea

January 14, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on the link between Schizophrenia and Type 2 Diabetes.  From the article: "People with schizophrenia tend to die up to 30 years earlier than the general population. Many of these untimely deaths are due to physical disorders, including heart attacks and stroke, for which diabetes is a major risk factor."  Could Schizophrenics be more sensitive to elevated BLOS compared to the General Population?  BLOS management may be an effective tool for managing Schizophrenia.   

Schizophrenia could be linked to type 2 diabetes, study finds

January 11, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on the creation of a new molecule that could provide sulfide to fight oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease.  From the article: "According to Pluth, the novelty of this research is that they were able to use carbonyl sulfide as a source of hydrogen sulfide. “It opened up a whole new class of donor molecules,” he said, and explained that currently available hydrogen sulfide donors are slow-release molecules that donate hydrogen sulfide passively while the newly developed molecules are programmed to quickly react to reactive oxygen species."  Is BLOS the major source of Oxidative Stress afflicting patients with Parkinson's disease?  If the answer is "yes", then BLOS management may be an effective tool for managing Parkinson's disease.   

Newly Created Molecules May Eventually Protect Cells from Diseases like Parkinson's

January 11, 2017: Here's a news article that reports on the link between obesity in parents to the increase of childhood developmental delays.  From the article: "The NIH study said it’s unknown why parental obesity might increase a child’s risk for developmental delays, but authors note that animal studies indicate that obesity during pregnancy may increase inflammation, affecting the baby’s brain, according to the NIH press release.

It’s also unknown why the father’s weight may affect their children, though some studies have indicated that obesity could affect the expression of genes in sperm, the release said."  Obesity is associated with a very high level of BLOS.  Could elevated BLOS be the primary source of oxidative stress (and inflammation) that is causing delays in childhood development? 

Study finds link between parental obesity, childhood developmental delays

December 16, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on the impact of oxidative stress on humans suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS).  From the article: "Researchers say that activating one’s own self-defense mechanisms such as the Nrf2 pathway, the body can fight free radicals and slow down the damage caused by MS.  When Nrf2 is activated, it produces antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). These antioxidant enzymes are powerful enough to neutralize many free radicals. Studies show that activated Nrf2 successfully slowed down the rate of demyelination."  As usual, the source of the oxidative stress is not elucidated.  Could elevated BLOS be the primary source of oxidative stress that is causing severe symptoms in patients with MS? 

How Oxidative Stress Affects Multiple Sclerosis

December 15, 2016: Here's a news article that reports on a common pathogenic bacteria in patients with gum disease and rhematoid arthritis.  From the article: "...the investigators say the common denominator they identified in periodontal disease (gum disease) and in many people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. An infection with A. actinomycetemcomitans appears to induce the production of citrullinated proteins, which are suspected of activating the immune system and driving the cascade of events leading to RA."  FYI this bacteria is catalase positive, which means it can protect itself against reactive oxygen species (ROS).  Could elevated BLOS select for these types of blood bourne pathogens?  Could the activation of catalase production by these pathogens also induce expression of other genes that cause diseases like RA?  Antibiotic treatment for these types of pathogens may require BLOS management in order to ensure adequate antibiotic performance.  In addition, ROS exposure can induce antimicrobial resistance, which could be avoided by BLOS management.

Common bacterium that causes gum infections may trigger rheumatoid arthritis